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Tianjin Municipality

Population (2007): 11,519,000

GDP (PPP): CNY501.8 billion (2007)

Nationalities: Han (97%), Hui (2%), and Manchu (1%)

Area: 11,760 km2

Local Weather: Click for Tianjin, Tianjin Forecast

Coastline: over 100 kilometers long

Climatic features: warm-temperate, semi-humid, monsoonal climate; distinct seasons; occasional summer flooding; frequent spring droughts.

Average temperature: - 4oC in January, 26oC in July.

Annual average rainfall: 550 - 650 mm; 75 percent of the rain falls in summer.

Physical features: low-lying alluvial plain along the Haihe River; saline-alkaline soil, faces the Bohai Gulf.

Products: wheat, corn, potatoes, sorghum, peanuts, soybeans, cotton, ambary hemp, pears, walnuts, sea products, petroleum, salt.

Administrative divisions: 13 districts and 5 counties.

Neighboring areas: Hebei Province and Beijing Municipality.

Comments: Tianjin is a major port city.

Geography: Tianjin is located at the lower reaches of the Haihe River, its territory lying on both sides of the river. Besides Haihe, several other rivers also run into the sea through the area, such as the New Ziya River, the Duliujian River, the New Yongding River, the New Chaobai River and Canal Ji. The distance from the city proper to the sea coast is 50 km and that to Beijing is 120 km. It is an important passage by sea to Beijing, having served as an important fort and doorway to Beijing since ancient times. It is also a communication hub linking north China, northeast China and northwest China. The direct distance from Tianjin to Shenyang in northeast China, to Baotou in northwest China and to Xuzhou and Zhengzhou in the south is less than 600 km. The city boasts the largest man-made harbor in the north; its Tianjin Port is an important passage linking a dozen of provinces and cities in the north with the sea. With more than 30 navigation routes leading to more than 300 international ports, it serves as a major channel linking the continents of Asia and Europe by sea. Tianjin's geographical position and strategic importance is unmatchable.

Climate: The city is located in the middle latitudes on the east bank of the European-Asian continent, facing the Pacific. The monsoon circulating winds bring a sharp impact on the city. In winter, wind often blows from the north because of the cold high pressure from Mongolia. In summer, affected by the subtropical high pressure from the western Pacific, the city sees much southerly wind. It has a semi-moist warm temperate continental monsoon climate, with an apparent feature of transit from continental climate to marine climate: there are four clearly divided seasons, but the duration of each is different; precipitation is not high, with uneven distribution over the year. Monsoon wind is high and sunshine is adequate. Located near the seacoast, the city has a strong continental climate. The annual average temperature is 12.3C. The hottest month is July, during which the average temperature can reach 26C. January is the coldest month, its average temperatures being -4C. The yearly average rainfall is 550-680 mm, 80% of which is concentrated in summer.

Natural resources
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More than 20 varieties of minerals worthy of excavation have been discovered. These include manganese, manganese-boron stone, gold, tungsten, molybdenum, copper, aluminum, zinc, limestone, marble, medical stone, barite, and natural oilstone. Petroleum and natural gas are reserved underground in the plain and the continental framework of the Bohai Sea.

The city is located across the River Haihe, the largest river in north China, which has at its upper reaches more than 300 tributaries of more than 10 km or longer. These tributaries converge into the North Canal, Yongdin River, Daqing River, Ziya River, and South Canal, which, further converge themselves into the Haihe River at Sanchakou near the Jin'gang Bridge of Tianjin. The Haihe, which flows into the Bohai Sea at Dagukou, runs 72 km long with an average width of 100 meter and a depth of 3-5 meter. It used to have 3,000-ton ships navigating on it. Since the project of diverting the water from the Luanhe River to Tianjin was finished in the 1980s, a billion cubic meters of water has been sent to the city every year. The city also has a rich deposit of underground water. In the mountainous area, quality mineral water with low mineral contents oozes from cracks of rocks at a rate of 7.2-14.6 tons per hour, and the flow can reach 720-800 tons per hour during the rainfall reason. There are three large reservoirs with a total capacity of 340 million cubic meters.

In the coastal area, there are a lot of salt- and alkali-resistant plants, such as Chinese ash, Chinese scholar tree, Chinese toon, willow, poplar, and phoenix tree. In recent years, orchards of pear, Chinese date, apricot, peach, grape, and apple have been developed. In the wetlands, there are reeds, calamus, and cultivated water chestnut and lotus root. In the northern mountainous area, there grow Chinese pine, Chinese walnut, walnut, haw, and persimmon. The wild animals are mostly herbivores, such as wild goat, river deer, hedgehog, squirrel and birds. There are about 30 varieties of freshwater fish in ponds and reservoirs, most of which being common carp, snail carp, grass carp, silver carp, and mullet.